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MichiK

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41

Mittwoch, 5. Juli 2006, 10:48

Hi Leif,

I'm really astonished how well the figures turned out even at a about three times the size they were intended to be! You've done a tremendous job on them! Of course, I can't speak for David, but as far as I'm concerned I have no objections against re-re-publishing the modeified files.

One way to get to new figures is to use a graphic program and make a figure kit from any suitable foto, scan, or drawing. I've attached two pictures as an example. The first one is a scan from the Preiser catalogue, which shows a set of H0 scale sailors, and the second are the figures I made from the scan (but in 1:250 scale of course). The mentioned Preiser catalogue can be a great source for figures, but there's a lot more, like Moduni's whole figure section. Just have a look at these two figures.

I always thought that the prepainted H0 figures (and larger scales are even worse) look too flat. With cast figures this can be overcome by painting techniques like dry brushing and washings (if your interested, have a look at Brian Fayle's figure painting site). Same applies to the paper figures, too (of course not the painting techniques). In your size I'd start with darker areas around the eyes and the mouth. The catalogue scan gives quite a good impression of what I mean.

To the end, allow me a little personal remark: In my eyes it's quite amazing what has become of a little fancy idea that I once had during my lunch break at work. Started with David's reworked files, Sepp's numerous creations, your upscaled people, not to forget ***** laser cut animals... And it's not as if the idea of using several layers of card board to give a something more body was new or revolutionary!

Keep up the good work!
Michi
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42

Mittwoch, 5. Juli 2006, 14:26

Thanks Gil & Michi for encouragement! Thanks also, Michi, for provisional use of yours and David's original.

This is a new field for me, and you have opened it up considerably. Those links were the door to a new world, and I'll start by perusing the Moduni catalogue for figures in other scales than 1:87 - which never struck me until your examples; how stupid can one be...

I've already collected some pilots and groundcrew images from the Moduni site, and now I'll go hunting for more. Your German pilots were extremely good and useful!
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  • Pilots-and-crew-1-87.jpg
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43

Donnerstag, 6. Juli 2006, 00:31

Liebe Modellbau-Freunde!

Anbei ein vielleicht noch wenig bekannter Link zum Papierfigurenbau. Robert Gesuelli baut für seine ausgezeichneten Dioramen große Mengen von Figuren in 1/87. Er verwendet allerdings Rollen für Körperteile und Köpfe, Gesichter sind angedeutet. Seine Technik dürfte auch uns hier interessieren. Leider kann ich nur sehr schlecht Französisch.

http://kitcarton.free.fr/html/art/art_gesuelli01.htm

Hi Leif!

Perhaps you don´t know the article in the link above. It illustrates how Robert Gesuelli builds great numbers of figures in 1/87 for his excellent dioramas. He uses rolls of paper for head, limbs and the body. The figures even have kind of faces. I am sure this is of some interest for all of us. It really is a pity that I hardly know french.

Cheers

Marcus
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  • phoArt_gesuelliPerso02.jpg

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44

Donnerstag, 6. Juli 2006, 06:37

Many thanks, Marcus! That is the work of an artist, of course. Everybody, go have a look at Gesuelli's terrific dioramas at the link given by Marcus! Here's his prize-winning depiction of the first run of Trevithick's English train:



As you say, Marcus, we can learn. From the pictures of his figures it appears he even uses special material for the hairs and wigs, which is beyond what I envisage. The technique for the hats, however, seems both commendable and doable. For the bodies, I'm still hoping that Michi's general technique is usable. It is so attractively simple, and yet powerful.

The French site Kit-Carton is interesting as such. In their section for free downloads, there are three models (a house, a tank, and a truck). I got the Renault Gaulion truck. If anyone else downloads the original and figures out the scale, I'd be much obliged for information, so I could scale it to 1:87.

From their page for free downloads from other sites I got a rather attractive Dewoitine in 1:72 scale. The original is by Pierre Gauriat, and you can get it here.

The sample images below are not to scale. Refer to the originals at links given above.
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  • Renaulttruck.jpg
  • Dewoitine.jpg
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René Pinos

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45

Donnerstag, 6. Juli 2006, 13:31

Hi Leif,

I made a printout of the Renault Galion and I suggest that it is 1/25 scale. The kit length is 103 mm and then ~30 mm in 1/87 ??!! Nothing to be found in Google or Wiki.

Thanks for your lessons of building 1/87 scale.

Kind Regards
René
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46

Freitag, 7. Juli 2006, 08:51

Thanks René. I agree about the size of the 1:87 model, but I think the original scale was 1:40 (and I think you got the same result; although inverted so to speak (0.40 - 25 percent - 1:25).

On Pierre Gauriats site there are several 1:40 versions of the Citroen HY van available for comparison: Grey versions from 1956 and 1964, plus a police and a fire brigade version:



There is also a Polish, more complicated, remake of this model:



For my own benefit I have collected the free downloads of the grey Citroen HY plus the yellow Renault van above, and scaled them to 1:87.

Should anybody need them in this particular scale, PN me for a pdf file of "French vans in 1:87" (four pages, 6.7 MB). I included photos and simple instructions sketches for the Citroen available at the original site, but I won't republish here, since the material is copyrighted. If you want the vans in any other scale, the original sites are of course recommended.

It is actually good to have access to several versions of these vans (whether you build them in their original scale or not), since some parts like wheels are interchangeable.

Finally, of the reference links to the Citroen HY supplied by Pierre Gauriat the following still work:

* http://fsinfo.cs.uni-sb.de/~abe/HY/index.html (In English)
* http://perso.libertysurf.fr/deuch/typeh.html (In French)

The first link will lead you to several more links referring to the original. At the last one, there is a rather intriguing image at the bottom showing the many different sizes available of the Citroen HY van:



Leif
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47

Samstag, 15. Juli 2006, 17:22

Small steel ruler and multipurpose drawing tool

Here's the result of recent philanderings into various flea markets - the drawing tool in the foreground. It can be used in many other ways than originally intended, as can be seen from the photos below.

But first let me gloat over the small 15 steel ruler in the background. Found it at the "Muji" department of a local store ("Muji" is the rather expensive and fashionable Japanese brand of small plexiglass boxes, various cosmetic implements, tools, and sundry small and exquisitly designed pens, pencils and what not).

The irony is that the flea market high-quality tool was 0.50 euros, while the equally high-quality but simpler ruler was 3 euros. But it's worth it - at one end it has the scale tight towards the surface you measure, or cut, and at the other is a recess which stops paint or ink from being sucked under the ruler. It would also allow for some adjustment when cutting.

Second picture shows the intended use of the drawing tool. You dip it into paint (I'm trying gouache here) and it draws a line the width of which you can adjust by the little screw. Very handy, and never used one in my whole life. Saw it on a TV documentary about a Swedish master modeller at work on his gigantic model railway landscape.

But my first use - which is why I bought it - will be for using as a pair of tweezers which don't need holding tight in order not to drop the part. It works absolutely beautifully. The part is held without strain, and you can turn it any which way without dropping it. Also, the surface occupied by the "tweezers" is minimal, so you can probably even edgepaint underneath them too. Will be parrticularly useful for the small details you regularly get to handle in 1:87 scale.

I am quite happy with it and can only recommend this tool, even at its full prize at the draft tools & paper shop!

PS. Jan, you can call of the hunt for a steel ruler now - but many thanks for the good thought!
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  • Drawingtools-1.jpg
  • Drawingtools-2.jpg
  • Drawingtools-3.jpg
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48

Dienstag, 18. Juli 2006, 09:32

New designer & free 1:72 aircraft, scaled to 1:87

As announced on Cardmodels.net Eric Johnson from California will publish a number of his designs, starting with a free download of an unusual WWI aircraft, the AD Scout/Sparrow from 1915. Download the original 1:72 model here.

About the designer

This is how Eric introduces himself:

"For many years, I made add-on aircraft for Microsoft Flight Simulator (mainly for FS95, FS98 and FS2000). During this time, I had developed around 80 aircraft, including some that went into commercial packages. Ultimately, I got burned out on doing Flight Simulator aircraft and stopped modeling completely for a couple of years.

In 2003, I found the Fiddlersgreen website and I became intrigued with the idea of converting the surface geometery of Flight Simulator planes into a 3D model that could be delivered to any printer in the world...

I like aircraft of all kinds and I prefer 1/72 scale because: 1) It's a good scale for the polygon resolution of the Flight Simulator planes that I have made and 2) I have a limited area to display my models.

Most of my paper model designs are WWI aircraft because I like them and it also seems to be one area in paper modeling that is a little underserved. I have completed 15 paper model designs (including an F-84F, Boeing 727 and Cessna 140) and I will be posting some of them here from time to time for your enjoyment (and critic)."

About the original aircraft

If anybody is wondering about the "AD" in the name of the aircraft, it most likely stands for "Admiralty Directive". The original aircraft is unusual to say the least. It also seems to have been quite horrible both in the air and on the ground. Here's what Wikipedia says:

"The AD Scout (also known as the Sparrow) was designed by Harris Booth of the British Admiralty's Air Department as a fighter aircraft for the anti-Zeppelin defense role during World War I.

The Scout was a decidedly unconventional aircraft - a biplane with a fuselage pod mounted on the upper wing. A twin-rudder tail was attached by four booms, and it was provided with an extremely narrow-track undercarriage. The primary armament was intended to be a 2 lb (900 g) recoil-less Davis Gun, but this was never fitted.

Four prototypes were ordered in 1915 and two each were built by Hewlett & Blondeau and the Blackburn Aeroplane & Motor Company. Trials flown by pilots of the Royal Naval Air Service proved the aircraft to be seriously overweight, fragile, sluggish, and difficult to handle, even on the ground. The project was abandoned and all four prototypes scrapped.

Armament: One downward-firing .303 Lewis machine gun. One 2-lb Davis recoilless gun (intended, but never fitted in view of the fragility of the Scout's construction)."

The only image I've found corroborates this description.

Scaled to 1:87

Eric's original 1:72 version is in four separate pdf sheets. For the purposes of building up a stock of 1:87 models, I've scaled and rearranged the parts on to two sheets (see below; also for a sample of Eric's design technique). If anybody wants to try out this 1:87 version, give me a PN.
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  • Sparrow-87-1.jpg
  • Sparrow-87-2.jpg
  • sparrowphoto.jpg
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49

Sonntag, 23. Juli 2006, 17:45

Finding good aircraft models for scaling to 1:87

The purpose of this ongoing thread is to explore the potential for building models of different kinds - aircraft, ships, cars & trucks, and buildings - in a common scale.

For this purpose I have chosen the HO scale of 1:87 for a few reasons:

Reasons for 1:87 as a common scale

+ Since it has been so common for such a long time among railway modellers, there already exist a great amount of accessories, such as figures, houses, landscape details, etc.

+ It would enable paper modellers of, for example, airplanes and ships to use their models in an already existing setting, with friends, in clubs, etc.

+ It is possible to scale many ships up to 1:87, particularly if the original is in 1:100. (An example is the joint "Venture" ship design project, which I regard as part of this larger effort.)

+ It is possible to scale many aircraft models down to 1:87, particularly if the original is in 1:72 (or around 1:50).

However, the level of detail in modern aircraft models in 1:33 scale and larger is so high, that building a version scaled to 1:87 is quite difficult (as I have found out by starting on a couple of experimental ones).

During the last weeks I have therefore systematically searched for aircraft models (since this is my thing, really) among the existing freeware downloads available. In my view, they should fulfill certain criteria:

Criteria for suitable 1:87 aircraft models

+ They should be "real" models, that is attempts to make true scale models. There exist a good number of freeware models which are at best idealized attempts (even if they may look good) to make something look like the original.

+ The level of detail and complexity should be considerably lower than the present highly detailed 1:33 models. (These, in my opinion, should instead be scaled UP, even to 1:16.)

+ At best they should include a glazed canopy, or at least potential for glazing the canopy. (This may be a personal thing with me, but I hate those solid canopies and windows.)

+ At the very best they should also contain a modelled cockpit; or at the very least a possibility for making a crude version of it on one's own.

How to find good models for scaling to 1:87

To find such models I took a couple of evenings of systematically going through the "Free downloads" section for aircraft here at Kartonbau.de. The search turned up a few really good sources (but not that many!) which met my criteria above.

Over time, I will try to review and introduce the most important such sources in this thread. Needless to say, I would be very grateful for additional thoughts on suitable models, both freeware and paid for.

Finding these few really good sources, I naturally downloaded the models I became extra fond of (there's a bias here, since I'm not particularly into jet aircraft, so I may have missed a few favourites of others!), and these will be included in the reviews.

At times, I will point out what I hope are some good tips in scaling and rearranging parts on fresh 1:87 sheets. And if someone would wish to share the result of the work I've already done along those lines, just write me a line in a PN or mail.

Leif
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50

Sonntag, 23. Juli 2006, 17:52

Five aircraft models by Roman Vasiliev, "Kampfflieger"

One of the many tips in the "Free download" section for aircraft here at Kartonbau.de was the Russian "Icegroup" site. Among the models there, you will find five aircraft models in 1:72 scale by well-known designer Roman Vasiliev, "Kampfflieger". (Look for "R.Vasiliev" in the column of names.)

These models are true scale models, beautifully designed, drawn, and coloured. The level of detail seems just right for the scale, and the difference between 1:72 and 1:87 is small, so the fit should be just as good.

In one case, the Avro/Cierva autogyro, the interior of the open cockpit is modelled. In the rest of the models, there is no provision for an interior, but glazing the cockpit certainly seems at least possible.

A simple cockpit interior might be fashioned with the help of the bucket seats from the Cierva, and perhaps part of the instrument board. In later installments I will point to models where you could "harvest" such details as seats, control columns, instrument boards, etc., for creating cockpits of other models, like these.

The models

Here's a list of the five models with their direct download links included (pdf-files), and some comments. (I list them in order of my personal preferences; yours, of course, may differ!):

+ Avro Rota/Cierva: The military, WWII, version of the Cierva autogyro from the 1930s. Beautifully coloured, cockpit interior. My favourite, and I feel a real urge to actually attempt to build this little gem.

+ General Aircraft GAL-24 Cygnet: A very attractive, basically civilan, aircraft with twin fins on what almost is a tail boom. Pressed into service during WWII, which is the version modelled here.

+ Seversky BT-8: US pre-WWII trainer, very colourful. A challenge to model that glasshouse on top, and create some basic interior of the two-seat cockpit.

+ Caudron C690 Rafale: A French, very small, advanced trainer during WWII. Looks like a civilian racing, or fast private, plane (which it may well have been; will have to look into that if I ever get to building it - someone else knows?). Glazing of the cockpit, and modelling the interior, seems less of a job than for the Seversky.

+ Miles M20: A prototype for a British WWII fighter (or attack aircraft?). Looks a lot like the Hawker Tempest, doesn't it, albeit smaller. Interesting, if you are really into military aircraft. I'll probably pass - but the model as such is just as beautifully executed as the four above.

The rescaled versions

Finally, I attach low-resolution images of my rescaled files for these models (my own sheets are in 300 dpi, which I think is equal to, or higher, than the resolution in the downloads).

Rescaling was absolutely no problem, since Roman already had fitted his 1:72 models into A4-size. The sheets just became a little more spacious in 1:87.

If and when I build one of these models, I may very well use the extra space to double certain details, like canopies and small parts which you are prone to need copies of anyway. Nothing like that has been done at this stage.
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  • Avro-Rota_Cierva-87.jpg
  • GAL42-Cygnet-87.jpg
  • Seversky-BT-8-87.jpg
  • Caudron-C690M-Rafale-87.jpg
  • Miles-M20-87.jpg
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51

Montag, 24. Juli 2006, 15:26

Adding spare parts to print sheets

Adding spare parts to print sheets is of course no big deal, but I still thought it was worth illustrating. If somebody is inspired to try it out, all the better.

Below you will see my rescaled single sheet of parts and instructions for the Roman Vasiliev ("Kampfflieger") free download model of the Avro Rota/Cierva autogyro (first image), just like already demonstrated above. As you can see, there's ample of space left in the margins for adding spare parts (doubles of difficult parts).

The second image shows my new print sheet, where I have filled the margins and empty spaces with such parts.

Of course, when I start building, I will probably botch a part that hasn't been added here. But still, it feels good to be prepared, and the procedure of arranging parts on the computer is almost therapeutical.

I find it a very soothing exercise.
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  • Avro-Rota_Cierva-87-1.jpg
  • Avro-Rota_Cierva-87-2.jpg
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52

Mittwoch, 26. Juli 2006, 02:14

Five 1:200 models from Konradus scaled to 1:87

The next good source for 1:87 models I've found digging through the "Free downloads" section for aircraft here at Kartonbau.de is an offer from the Konradus electronic newsletter "Fanatyk Kartonu" (Is it just "Card model fan" or is it indeed "The fanatic card modeller"?).

The odd thing about using the models, so generously offered here, for rescaling to 1:87 is that you will be scaling UP instead of DOWN - the models are in 1:200 scale. Obviously, they are meant to be accessories to 1:200 ship models, as is also evident from the choice of aircraft: Three US WWII pacific carrier-based pursuit or attack aircraft, one British WWII flying boat, and one Japanese gigantic long-range patrol and bomber flying boat.

The intended scale and use means that the level of detail is very reasonable, and they should build into beautiful 1:87 versions of well-known aircraft, available in much more detailed versions in other scales (except for the Japanese flying boat Emily, which I have ever only seen in this 1:200 version - please correct me if I am wrong).

The small scale does not mean, however, that the designers have scrimped on graphic detail and general quality, quite the opposite. From the Konradus site I somehow got the impression that at least the three models of US aircraft have an origin as 1:72 models, which means that they have gone down in scale - and now I propose to bring them up to almost their original scale again.

Here's the specific page for downloading the models (clicking the direct download links provided below will get you zipped pdf-files). I have two absolute favourites among these five models, and I'll start and end the review with one of each:

Grumman F-6F-3 Hellcat USS "Essex" 1943: This is my favourite, because it is the first (so far) model in this range of scales that I have seen with a cockpit interior, and thus options for glazing as well. At the site the model is offered without these details, which are added in a separate update:

Update for the "Essex" Hellcat (including interior details): As you will see from the images attached below, I have added these details to my rescaled printsheet of the "Essex" Hellcat. In order to fit all the parts in I use a larger paper size, 21,6 x 42 cm (made by cutting A3 size paper down to the max width my A4 printer can swallow).

Grumman F-6F-3 Hellcat USS "Saratoga" 1944: Here's a later version of the Hellcat. It is offered without interior cockpit, but in my print sheet I have added the details from the "Essex" Hellcat, which will enable glazed canopy with cockpit interior. I actually managed to get the extra details into the same ordinary A4 sheet as the rescaled original model.

Please note that many of the details in these two models, particularly the "Essex" Hellcat, are worth scrounging - or salvaging - for other models lacking cockpit interiors. Example: Bucket seat, the general layout of the cockpit walls, the detailed wheels and tyres, and the instrument panel.

Grumman TBF-1 Avenger: A similar model as the two Hellcats, although lacking interior. This will be more difficult to make a cockpit interior for, but something reasonable might still be accomplished by using details from the "Essex" Hellcat. The aft domed canopy with a gun will be a particlar challenge, I believe. The rescaled model ended up on two A4 sheets, no extra details added yet, but there's certainly room for it eventually.

The quality of the graphics of these three models is generally very high for this small scale, and will stand enlargement to 1:87 without any problems whatsoever. There are no instructions for any of these models, which however shouldn't be too much of a problem for a reasonably experienced builder.

Supermarine Walrus: This is a really attractive model of an aircraft that I always wanted, and I might very well build it before any of the others. The level of detail and graphic quality is well suited for 1:87 and enlargement was not a problem. My 1:87 print version ended up on two A4 sheets, and I got the instructions in as well, plus some doubles of strategic parts like the canopy and a few others.

Kawanishi H8K2 Emily: This is a truly awesome model, in a class all by itself. Scaling to 1:87 seems to be the least one could and should do for this not so little masterpiece - the length of the fuselage will be almost 40 cm even in the still small scale of 1:87, as will the span.

The challenge of scaling it was so special that I will devote a separate post to it (later on), and the presentation of the model. Below I just attach an image of the two original 1:200 parts sheet, in order to give an idea of the complexity of the model. Not scaled, nothing added or rearranged yet.

The four images preceding the Emily are my rescaled and rearranged print sheets, thus differing from the originals you may download. The idea is to demonstrate how you can rearrange parts on sometimes larger paper sizes when you rescale. It is a little bit like making your own personalized kit, and a very satisfying exercise, I find.
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  • Hellcat-Essex-87.jpg
  • Hellcat-Saratoga-87.jpg
  • Avenger-87.jpg
  • Walrus-87.jpg
  • Emilyoriginals-200.jpg
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53

Donnerstag, 27. Juli 2006, 02:00

Introducing the magnificent Kawanishi H8K2 "Emily"



May I introduce the largest operational, and without competition best performing flying boat of all during WWII - the Japanese Kawanishi H8K2, allied codename "Emily". This is the subject of the last of the free downloads from the Konradus site reviewed above.

As offered, the model is in 1:200 scale. I propose to rescale it to 1:87, which will result in a model of 42 cm span, and 32 cm length. These measures, in a model smaller even than 1:72 scale, will give you an appreciation what a really big aircraft this was - far bigger than the British Sunderland, and the US B-17 & B-24, to mention but a few.

In operation, 24 hour long patrols were not uncommon, and its max range (in overload condition) was no less than 7.200 km. Typical range was closer to 4.800 km.

This huge aircraft was utilized as bomber, torpedo plane, surveillance or anti-submarine aircraft, with a crew of nine. A special transport version could take 29 passengers or 64 troop.

A total of 167 H8Ks were completed. The one in the image above has rested for 23 years outside the Tokyo Maritime Museum, after having been returned from US evaluation and long-term storage since 1945. Today it has been moved to the Kagoshima Kanoya Base Museum of the Japanese Self Defense Forces.

It is also the aircraft modelled in the Konradus download, which makes it extra important to study the colour scheme and other details. But before we do that, a few links for more information:

Pacific wrecks
Japanese flying boats
Gamespy
Warbirds resource group
Angelfire
WWII Imperial Japanese Navy Aircraft Photos

And here are a few images of the Emily in its heydays (plus the lone survivor), which I simply can't keep from you (please watch them in full size, if you are the least bit interested in the subject):
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Donnerstag, 27. Juli 2006, 08:21

Hello Leif,

Great subject! If I remember correctly the Tokyo Maritime Museum is within walking distance of the Yokohoma Grand Hotel where I've stayed many times. I remember the Emily there and am somewhat suprised that it was moved but on second thought if it's on display "inside" that is good. The Tokyo summer sun can really takes its toll on artifacts. This would make a great subject for 1:72 or even 1:48. I think Hasegawa did a model on it some time back but for some reason got the wing turrets wrong and the kit was panned by most plastic modelers. -Gil Russell
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Donnerstag, 27. Juli 2006, 20:24

The magnificent Emily scaled from 1:200 to 1:87

When you download the magnificent model of the Kawanishi H8K2 "Emily" in 1:200 scale from the Konradus Fanatyk Kartonu site, you get a single (zipped) five-page pdf-file. I have already shown the two pages with parts (last post but one above), so let's focus first on the three pages of instructions (see the first attached image below).

Glancing through these, you will soon find, to your astonishment, that this 1:200 aircraft model is designed with a cockpit interior! There are seats for four crew members, interior walls, an instrument panel, and even control columns and radio cabinets (albeit sketchy). The effort to design (thank you, Dawid Furczak!) and build the interior, is well worth it, since the result will be clearly visibly through the generous glazing of the cockpit.

The design effort is quite extraordinary for this scale, and I think it will come out even better in more than twize the design size, 1:87 scale, which is the goal here.

Unfortunately, that was not so easy to achieve as with the other four models from the Fanatyk Kartonu site. If you try, you will soon find that the pdf-file is locked, and can only be printed - not copied, not opened in Photoshop, not being changed in any way. This was a great disappointment to me, and spoiled a lot of the gratitude for the beautiful model.

After some efforts, however, I found a way of working with the files. (No sophisticated or laborious techniques are involved; nor any exotic software beyond what you already have if you have downloaded the model. So if anybody is really interested in reworking these or similar files for legitimate and private purposes, let me know by PN).

Scaling to 1:87 and rearranging the parts resulted in five new print sheets for a 1:87 version of the "Emily". Four of these are reproduced below (I left out one sheet of formers and bulkheads, in order to keep to the 5-image limitation per post on the site) .

The rescaled print sheets

As you can see, these sheets are longer than A4. I cut A3 160g paper down to the max width of the printer, resulting in sheets that are 21,6 cm x 42 cm.

Five of these LONG sheets is a lot for a 1:87 model, and goes to show the size of the original, and the relatively high level of detailedness of the model. I still judge it to be admirably buildable in 1:87 (as it should be, if it indeed was intended as a 1:200 model originally, which I somehow doubt - has anybody seen the Emily published elsewhere, in larger scale, possibly 1:72?).

You will find that some jaggedness is evident after scaling. This is not a result of my rescaling technique, since most of it, unfortunately, is already there in the original, and thus impossible to get around.

230 percent certainly is a lot of magnification, but the jaggedness in this model is MUCH more pronounced than in the other four models reviewed from this site (which were all magnified just as much), so there must be something in how the original was treated when saving it as the original pdf-file. Which is a pity for such a magnificent model!

Another feature of these sheets is that I have recoloured the original model after having studied the photos in the previous post, plus others in the links. The green is now darker (cf. the original sheets two posts back), as is the yellow. The rather nauseating interior green has been changed to a more pleasing nuance. And the four spinners are red instead of grey.

Quite possibly, the green should be even darker. If anybody has a suggestion, please give me a hint. It is quite easy to adjust the recolouring, since I saved selections for each colour, on each parts sheet.

The recolouring was a very easy task since the original colours were monochrome, and well preserved throughout the rescaling process. It was just a matter of letting the magic wand tool pick out all of, for example, the green in one sheet (a true "one-click" operation); save that selection (just in case, and to be able to make adjustments later); and filling it with the new nuance of green in a layer above the original (again, to be on the safe side). Same for each sheet, and for all other colours. This did not take more than a few hours, which is quite painless.

I finished the reworking by importing the engine from the "Essex" Hellcat, previously reviewed. I think they are a great improvement, even if you won't see much of them. It is an example of how you, as a builder, can modify existing kits by using parts from others you have bought or saved.

What remains to be done, constructionwise, is to get rid of the building method with sections (that is, the old MM style, with double formers). Instead, I'll make joining strips and insert single formers after first having joined the skin of one section to the next. I'm not sure if I'll actually draw new joining strips on the computer, or just cut them by hand as I go along.

Finally, the reproductions below are low-resolution (72 dpi). Originals are 300 dpi. If anybody would like to try them out in their present state, just say so. A pdf-kit of the instructions plus the five reworked print pages as per above is 8,5 MB.

A build report of this magnificent model of an equally magnificent aircraft would be something to look forward to!

The same offer of course goes for the other rescaled freeware models reviewed in this thread.
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  • Emily-instr.jpg
  • Emily-87-1.jpg
  • Emily-87-2.jpg
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  • Emily-87-4.jpg
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Freitag, 28. Juli 2006, 17:11

Dear Leif,

once again very nice thread with many inspiring ideas and suggestions! The "Emily" is indeed a very impressive flying boat. It was still there in December 2001, when I visited the Tokyo Maritime Museum. I did not know that it had been moved. It would have been nice to see it from inside, but that had not been possible in those days.

Hope somebody will build the model/your enlarged model.

With best regards,

Matthias

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Samstag, 29. Juli 2006, 14:57

Dear Leif,

I'am following your thread the whole time and your Show is excellent. Athough I'am not in the position to work on this small masterpeices because of my "Wustfinger" = sausage fingers.

@Gil,
I own an untouched kit of the EMILY in 1/72 from Hasegawa. :D, when interested, then send me a PN.
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Sonntag, 30. Juli 2006, 23:18

Trying to build the Avro Rota-Cierva autogyro in 1:87

I'm glad to hear you, too, find this interesting, my friends!

The Avro/Cierva autogyro, modelled so well by Roman Vasiliev ("Kampfflieger") in 1:72, appealed to me right from the start. So, feeling the urge to place my money where my mouth has been for a while, the reviews will be interrupted by a little actual 1:87 building now and then.

And I stress now and then - I don't think I've done any more time-consuming building per finished part than this. Building in small scales is really, really taxing on your patience and strength.

The rotor went well enough. In the picture below I'm using a very handy template for propellor building, graciously published by Tonino, a card-model building friend from San Marino, not heard from for a while. In case anybody needs this handy tool, you can download the original attached below.

The main wheels were made exactly like described in an earlier post, and they, too, went quite well.

I then decided to tackle the engine. I have never handled and shaped parts this small before. The cylinders actually had to be shaped and glued over a coarse needle - nothing else was thin enough. And then the cylinder heads had to be cut circular at a diameter of a small tooth-pick, and everything glued together.

The overall diameter of the finished engine as you can see it in the last photo is just 12 mm. The clothespin, of course, is a mini variant - not a regular size one. As far as I can count, the engine as seen pinned on a needle here is made up of 32 parts, and then the propeller isn't even made or attached yet.

The valve pushrod tubes are made of small staples. They are too thick, I think, but I was happy to find them, since even ordinary staples would have been way too thick. The reason I went for staples is that I didn't trust myself to bend and cut wires this small. The small staples were of just the right length at one end, so only one cut had to be made.

From now on I will never stop admiring people building in small scales. The big learning experience for me so far is that I'll have to learn to simplify. Those valve push-rod tubes was taking it a bit too far. They weren't really specified by designer Roman, who obviously knows better.
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Sonntag, 30. Juli 2006, 23:54

RE: Trying to build the Avro Rota-Cierva autogyro in 1:87

Wonderful photo layout and composition here Leif. All the elements to tell the story.
Outstanding!
John

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Montag, 31. Juli 2006, 10:55

Hey Squinty! Somebody stapled your engine!

I think you're on a campaign to get an HO train set this coming Christmas. Cunning! Very cunning way to slide into it..., If you want to be permanently blind why not try N scale? 1:152 (2 mm to the foot, go figure). Near enough to 1:144 no one would really ever notice. Maybe Texman is a closet N scaler..., More to this story than meets the eye...., Having a good time following this thread! Keep it going!

-Gil Russell
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Montag, 31. Juli 2006, 23:33

Hi Martin,

Yes, that can be N scale too..., the following site does a fair job of clearing up the ambiguities of which there are many..., -Gil

http://www.answers.com/topic/n-scale
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Freitag, 4. August 2006, 12:10

New Cessna 140 free download

Eric Johnsson, who did the AD Scout, previously reviewed in this thread, has published another freeware model in 1:72 scale. It is very suitable for scaling to 1:87, since the design is clean and simple.

Writes Eric on Cardmodels.net: "Here's my second model that I'm releasing. It's a 1/72 scale Cessna 140. In the late 1960's my two oldest brothers went in together and bought a Cessna 140 which they dubbed 'The Green Weinie'. This is a model of their plane that I did for them last year."

The original download pdf-files are here:

Cessna 140 (parts sheet in 1:72)

Cessna instructions

For those interested, I've rescaled Eric's new model to 1:87, and got the instructions in on the same A4 sheet.
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Freitag, 4. August 2006, 19:53

Leif Ohlsson Disease 1:87

Hi Leif,

Eric's model seems to be very nicely done. It would look great in an HO layout. Shrunk by 82.76% I had a go at the wing. It came out ok but will need to be redone (did an experiment to form rounded wingtips which worked). The spar was changed from "built up" to a 1 mm "cutout". Much easier this way. Hopefully I'll get a chance tonight to do another.

-Gil Russell
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Freitag, 4. August 2006, 22:05

Drawings & photos of the Cessna 140

Nice to hear you gave it a go, Gil. Would love a photo or two, on occassion. For the wing spar, I was kind of thinking of your method of making up a profile of layers of folded (at the leading edge) ordinary thickness paper of different length at top and bottom. I think that is a beaut of an idea! (And it would be grand to have it in the Kartonbau.de collection of tutorials which is in the works...)

Meanwhile, a quick search for drawings and photos of the Cessna 140 turned up some gems, which I can't keep from prospective builders.

The two-sheet Paul Matt drawings are exquisite and come from the French site run by Richard Ferriere (although no language problems, since it is only a VERY long list of links to drawings collected on the site - it is a real goldmine!).

I have scaled this and incorporated both sheets into a 1:87 drawing. There was also room for the photos, which is always nice to have handy, particularly if you wish to recolour.

The two sheets (model plus instructions, and Paul Matt drawings plus photos) are combined in a single two-page 1:87 scale pdf-file (5.2 MB) of the Cessna 140. Anybody wishes to have a go at it, write me a PM.

Sources of photos:

Photos of the red & alu Cessna, plus the instrument panel
Red & white Cessna
Green & white Cessna
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  • Drawing-87+photos.jpg
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Samstag, 5. August 2006, 02:36

Cessna 140 Wing

Hi All,

Lief, I was able to take another try at the Cessna wing this afternoon. Unfortunately the photos of the early stages of the build were lost due to unknown but not recurring computer interface problems. The cut out spar was used and works as advertised. I am rather pleased with the results of the wing tips which took repeated applications of white glue and burnishing to achieve the smooth closure. The paper needs to be sealed for this process to work otherwise the paper turns to mush. Note that the pleat in the upper surface wing bow is left uncut. Till next...,

-Gil Russell

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Samstag, 5. August 2006, 17:53

Beutiful wings and a beautiful recolouring task...

Those are beautiful wings, Gil! Could you explain in a few words just what you mean by "the pleat in the upper surface wing bow is left uncut" - that is the suggested cutout in the wing-tip upper surface, right? The technique to avoid those cutouts (which tend to spoil a model) would really merit some further description!

I'd also like to say to everybody that Eric Johnson, the designer, has given his blessing to this little rescaling and reposting exercise (Also of the previous AD Scout; see this post at Cardmodels.net). So if anybody had any doubts on this point, have no fear to have a go also at the 1:87 version available from here (PM me for a copy of the 1:87 version).

Meanwhile, I can't resist publishing these two photos of N89605, a beautiful wine-red & cream 1946 Cessna 140 (Source).

I've been looking for an original which had some other nuance than pure white as its main colour - white paper does seem to give a kind of dirty look, I always thought. This should be a lovely subject for recolouring (not that Eric's model needs it; just tinkering...)

RGB 30-0-10, and RGB 95-95-80 might be about right for wine-red and cream, or what do you all say? Grateful for suggestions for improvements here.
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Samstag, 5. August 2006, 22:21

RE: Beutiful wings and a beautiful recolouring task...

Zitat

Originally posted by Leif Ohlsson
Those are beautiful wings, Gil! Could you explain in a few words just what you mean by "the pleat in the upper surface wing bow is left uncut" - that is the suggested cutout in the wing-tip upper surface, right? The technique to avoid those cutouts (which tend to spoil a model) would really merit some further description!
...,
RGB 30-0-10, and RGB 95-95-80 might be about right for wine-red and cream, or what do you all say? Grateful for suggestions for improvements here.


Hi Lief,

The more correct sewing term is "dart" and yes, your description of it accurate, "that is the suggested cutout in the wing-tip upper surface"..., I learned this technique from "Swinger" of Poland who to my knowlege was the first to post the method. Luckily that thread is still in existence on Cardmodels.net and can be found here:

http://www.cardmodels.net/forum/showthre…ghlight=Swinger

The colors swatches are very near to the photograph but as you realize everyones system and printer will yield their own interpretation. I've actually come up with an idea that might solve this problem using Photoshop and uses just Photoshop, screen, target paper and your printer. Open the photograph in PS. Use the eyedropper tool to sample several shades of the intended color or colors and write these values down. Print out enlarged sections of the color areas for comparison swatches. Open a new document of say around 30 mm by 240 mm. Do some avergaing math on earlier recorded values to obtain an average for the midpoint value for each RGB component and note the highest and lowest value of your target colors. Open up the gradient tool. Set the endpoints to the high and low values respectivley and set the midpoint values to your computed averages (make sure to save the gradient). Apply this to the 30 x 240 mm "color swatch" and divide it into say 8 squares. Print one of these for each target color. Now compare the swatch color to your enlarged color sections for a color match. Note which of the 8 squares it is. Go back to PS and sample the square on the swatch. You now have a color match that will print as near to the orginal as is possible. Note that some colors will be outside the color gamut and will not work with this method.

Best regards, Gil Russell

P.S. Note that the second color match doesn't have to be a photograph to perform the color match. It can be the actual object itself. The photograph is just a mechanism to transfer the initial color information into PS in order to generate the color swatch comparison bar...,
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Sonntag, 6. August 2006, 11:07

1:87 Cessna 140 Build

Hi Leif,

I was able to finish the back half of the fuslage tonight. A couple of things I would have done different first. I used 110 lb. paper for the build. It should have been closer to 67 lb. The rudder and elevators should be on even lighter paper (24-32 lb.). The wing should be aligned vertically to the long axis of the paper. It was difficult to roll due to its "against the grain" orientation on the layout sheet (rudder and elevators should be oriented in this respect also).

The fuselage join tab was cut off and plain butt joints were used instead. The fit of the design is great allowing butt joints to be used. I use masking tape cut into 2 mm wide strips from de-sticked tape to clamp the fuselage halves together. De-sticking the tape means applying it to a surface and removing several times to reduce the tack of the tape. It's also a good idea to seal the paper surface before beginning with a sealer coat so glue goofs and edge paint can be easily cleaned off. It has the added effect of preventing the masking tape strips from tearing the surface of the paper when removed. The masking tape strips are used to close the glued joints of the fuselage a section at a time. Once the the seams were all taped a layer of white glue was painted on all interior joints to strenghten them. The fuselage, once dry, was worked with a small "spoon" shaped tool against a glass plate backing. A shaped cross piece was added under the engine decking to flatten it. Notice that one of the elevators is crooked in the photo, I really didn't notice the misalignment till I looked at the photo (it's been fixed). Aligning the tail elements is a bit "twiddly". I was thinking of building a jig to stabilize it but decided to to do the "fiddly-twiddly" once again.

One other interesting point is I am finding it difficult to photograph at this scale as the depth of field is very small.

-Gil Russell

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Sonntag, 6. August 2006, 18:14

Oh, this is good! You are really giving some content to the rubric of the thread - "Learning to build in 1:87". Several of these techniques are so valuable that they need to be described in detail.

So, anytime you feel like getting really into detail about the techniques you are describing, Gil, please feel most welcome! Meanwhile, I'll just save and saviour them (and try to apply them myself).

The masking tape trick sounds very good. I have used ordinary office tape myself, but masking tape should be even better (although thicker) since it is more pliable in all directions. Will definitely try that (after having varnished the parts with gouache varnish, which is my favourite at the moment).

A critical point would be finding a technique of making windows transparent. I have been playing around with "Crystal" type of tape, one layer from each side, and the outer layer trimmed carefully to the very outline of the respective window. Need more practice, though.

Best, Leif
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Dienstag, 8. August 2006, 02:49

1:87 Cessna Nose Piece

Hello All,

Decided to make a form to aid in the making of the nose piece. A couple of discs were cut from thin corrugatged cardboard, glued, stacked and drilled to allow a bamboo skewer to be inserted for handling. Epoxy putty was then formed around the discs and shaped like the Cessna's nose. After the epoxy set the plug was carved and test fit to the fuselage opening. A layer of museum wax was applied and melted into the surface of the plug to adhere plastic wrap to the plugs surface. I took Eric's nose piece and enlarged it some using Photoshop and printed out a sheet with a few dozen just in case. The new nose pieces were then coated with sealer. A nose piece was then cut out and dry formed on a sheet of cork. A drop of white glue was then added to the back of the piece and it was then placed on the forming plug. The plug was then pressed into a 10 mm thick piece of foam rubber. The foam rubber exerts a force over the entire surface of the piece making it conform to the plug. The piece was removed from the plug when dry. The back edge was then sanded flat on fine sandpaper and the edge colored. The piece was then glued in place and the edges burnished into those of the fuselage. Notice the residual small edge wrinkles from the forming process proving that it's still made of paper. In retrospect the piece that it attaches too should have been left unglued (per Eric's instructions) to the fuselage. It would have made assembling the nose piece a much easier process..., till next...,

-Gil Russell


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Dienstag, 8. August 2006, 07:48

That is advanced modelling, Gil! You are going so fast, and there are so many stages here that I - and others I'm sure - would like to see illustrated.

Is the museum wax and plastic wrap bit necessary? Any other way to do this than using epoxy (which I hate)?

How does the foam rubber bit work?

End result, beautiful, of course, and you should be proud - again.

Everybody interested, do have a look also at a different technique Gil has developed to roughly the same end:



It's in the form of a quiz at Cardmodels.net, "How was this done...?"

Leif
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Dienstag, 8. August 2006, 08:14

Leif,
I really enjoy following this thread. It is very inspiring. I should translate it though...but I have lot of work during the day and in the evening I do...translations (in fact a book on holography).
But I have you guys in the list.

Cheers
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Dienstag, 8. August 2006, 17:17

Designing without CAD and 3D - free tutorials

I'd like to make an interlude here (waiting for Gil's further descriptions, and comments by others) to introduce a few valuable manuals, or tutorials, for how to design paper models without any more sophisticated software than an ordinary graphics program (like Photoshop, or Corel I imagine)
The main source for these valuable tutorials are Fiddler's Green and their Tutorials directory.

You'll find three items there (and I supply direct links for downloading the respective pdf-files):

JT Masters: Building tips for beginners - contains valuable tips, but not for designing.

Kell Black: Designing without CAD - contains a text for a college course in designing. The manual for making cone sections is filled with fairly exotic and daunting mathematical formulas. Do have a look at it; it might be just your ticket. Otherwise, here's a very good alternative:

Cone Calculator - a webpage (not Fiddler's Green) with an online calculator originally designed to calculate flat pattern dimensions of sheet metal cones, but superbly suited to card modelling (seethe last picture attached below). However - do not let yourself get intimidated by thinking that it is necessary to include the ability to design paper cones in order to design a perfectly professional paper model. Here's the real goldmine:

Rob Carleen: Designing the FJ-1 Fury - contains a new directory for downloading five separate pages. This is the good stuff, in my opinion, but I would recommend the link below, for Rob's own version, which I think is of higher graphic quality:

Rob Carleen: Designing without CAD - a download from this recent thread at Cardmodels.net

If you pick up only one thing from the links given here, let that be it! Please study the attached images below, for Rob's very down-to-earth technique: He recommends building an ordinary balsa-style framework (albeit using card) over the best availablethree-view drawing (first and second image), blown up to roughly twice the size of your intended model.

On that framework you glue pieces of paper (with a glue that allows removing the piece again) over sections, cut them clean (second image), lay them out, and scan them. Iterate the process, by building test models of your cut-out and scanned parts, as many times as it takes to get it really right.

Same kind of down-to-earth technique goesfor canopies (third image): Start with anything you've got from another kit which resembles the cockpit you wish to make, and make small changes. The third image below shows Rob's series of canopies for the FJ-1 Fury used as example in the tutorial.

Make the first round of wing parts more or less directly from the plan form, adding a bit to compensate for curvature, usually more on the top side.

Always print two copies of your trial parts (fuselage, canopies, wings, and other parts); one for test-building, the other for making notes and sketches of changes to be made for the next trial-and-error cycle.

You'll find the finished result here at Fiddler's Green (see the fourth image below).

Let me say again that Rob's short and sweet tutorial is pure solace for all of us who admire people who produce high-quality kits with advanced 3D software, but feel intimidated by the prospect of having to buy it, learn it, and use it.

Rob designs professional, high-quality models, with techniques that are well within reach for every card modeller of some experience. And he makes it quite credible that we could do it too.
»Leif Ohlsson« hat folgende Bilder angehängt:
  • RobCarleen-drawing.jpg
  • RobCarleen-fuseframe.jpg
  • RobCarleen-canopies.jpg
  • RobCarleen-Furymodel.jpg
  • ConeCalc.jpg
Dankbar für die Gelegenheit auf Englisch schreiben zu dürfen, kann aber Antworten problemlos auf Deutsch lesen.

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Dienstag, 8. August 2006, 19:20

Thank you, Leif for this really interesting material!

Cheers,

Bernhard

Gil Russell

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Mittwoch, 9. August 2006, 11:25

1:87 Cessna 140 Build

Hello Lief,

Answering your questions:

Q) Is the museum wax and plastic wrap bit necessary? Any other way to do this than using epoxy (which I hate)?

A) As it works out the museum wax isn't required. The plastic wrap is used as a release agent to keep the glue from sticking to the form. The epoxy I am using is like a log which you slice off a piece and knead (like in dough) it together until well mixed. It gives off a small amount of amine fumes but is not really that annoying. I've found that it can be found at most hardwarre stores and is very useful in making this type of thing. Sculpey might be an alternative that you can try.

Q) How does the foam rubber bit work?

A) The paper part is dry formed with the round end of a paint brush or similar tool until it becomes dish shaped. A drop of white glue is spread on the underside of the part and is placed on the form. The whole assembly is then pushed into the foam rubber which exerts a force over the entire surface of the paper such that it conforms closely with the carved form. It is then clamped into place and allowed to sit till the paper-white glue combination drys. It's then partecd from the form and the plastic wrap is pulled off the part. All sorts of small compound curved parts can be constructed this way including cylinder head parts...,

I think that the Eric's nose design is fairly standard for this style of aircraft but have come to think that a little design change might make forming it a little easier and dates back to the reverse petal design discussion. If I can find enough time I'll reverse engineer a new nose.

Another small item while I'm thinking of it. I had to cut several sets of the wing struts till I finally executed an acceptable set. The major problem was the paper moving under the straight edge as the last cut was being made. I found that placing the part on a cork pad removed the movement and allowed the cut to be made without the part moving around.

The windshield , wing panel and wing struts were all joined together tonight. It's beginning to look like a Cessna 140. The fit of these items was dead on. Nice job Eric and thanks.

Best regards, Gil


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Donnerstag, 10. August 2006, 01:54

Very pretty, Gil! No reinforcements inside the struts then? - L
Dankbar für die Gelegenheit auf Englisch schreiben zu dürfen, kann aber Antworten problemlos auf Deutsch lesen.

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Donnerstag, 10. August 2006, 05:33

Cessna 140 Build

Lief,

Good point. The struts were wetted with thin CA to add strength. I thought of using wire but opted for the CA instead.

-Gil Russell
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Samstag, 12. August 2006, 09:59

Cessna 140 Build Completion

Hello All,

The Cessna 140 is finished. The landing gear struts are per the design but the tires were assembled from two layers of cardboard. After punching and gluing two layers together a pin was used to punch a center hole and the two pieces were drilled with a small diameter printed circuit board drill. The wheel was then mounted on a mandrel and sanded to the shape of a tire followed by black tempura paint. The outside pieces were punched out from Eric's design and glued to either side of the tire. Any white area on the outside of the "hubcaps" was touched up with black paint. The wheels were then glued to the landing gear struts.

The tailwheel as designed is not strong enough to last any time at all without wire reinforcement. I decided to use a piece of wire and a cardboard punch disc instead. The wire was glued to the disc with CA. The wire section was then repeatedly dipped into white tempura paint to form the tapered tailwheel swing arm. The tire was painted with black tempura. Small discs were cut out of white paper and applied on both sides of the tailwheel to give the appearence of a wheel hub.

The prop spinner was formed from a stack of cardboard punchouts. The stack was sanded to shape and white tempura paint applied. The spinner was drilled to accept a paper shaft and the two were then glued together. The prop was also drilled to the accept the paper shaft and was then glued to the hub/shaft assembly. This was then simply inserted into a hole in the nose to accept the shaft. It was not glued to avoid damage from the occasional "prop spinner" type.

In summary the design form and fit was excellent. The wing, elevator and rudder sheet orientation need to be changed in order to align them with paper grain. Some of the items had to be changed to account for the smaller scale and also for reasons of strength and endurance. Also the nose piece can be formed by just embossing it into a round clamshell shape and fitting it to the nose section. One other item that Eric might think about changing is the addition of a former that inserts into the nose piece so that it holds the cross section. This would make mounting the formed nose piece much easier. Building in 1:87 scale is not for those in a hurry. It takes time and will also require some parts to be made more than once but the results are well worth the challenge.

best regards, Gil Russell
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Samstag, 12. August 2006, 10:18

Good morning, Gil,

It is great to see the 1:87 Cessna in its finished state, and in the few installments it took you to do it in this thread about building in this scale, you have indeed managed to get in a most valuable collection of techniques:

+ The wings, with their new spar and seamless, shaped tips.

+ The nose section, shaped on a preshaped plug, much like a canopy, although all in paper. (Not for everybody, and hopefully not necessary in all cases...)

+ The stiffened struts.

+ The wheels, turned on a mandrel (confirming the validity of a technique outlined earlier in the thread).

+ The redesigned, stronger tailwheel (which I dearly would like to see illustrated - I did not quite get it...)

+ The prop and particularly the spinner (very important to be able to get small parts correctly shaped - any angularity here will give away the whole show and effort).

I am very grateful and happy that you took the time and spent the effort to finish this model and report the result here, Gil. Thanks also for confirming that building in small scales really requires different techniques and takes a lot of time and a few missed approaches until you get it right.

And the little Cessna sits so pretty there, confirming that it might really be worth it after all!

Leif
Dankbar für die Gelegenheit auf Englisch schreiben zu dürfen, kann aber Antworten problemlos auf Deutsch lesen.

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Samstag, 12. August 2006, 11:06

Tailwheel Construction Clarification

Good Morning Leif,

Glad to contribute to the effort..., besides it's fun while at the same time challenging.

I've found that tempera paint can be used to build up a wire mandrel by using a technique not unlike that used to make candles. It takes a little time for the layers of tempura to set but produces results that would be difficult to obtain using other methods. The tailwheel was simply a couple of paper punch disks which were glued together to acieve the approximate thickness of the tailwheel. A hole was "pinned" in the center of the wheel and the "L" formed wire was inserted into it and cemented in place with CA. The wire was then dipped into the white tempura paint and let dry in between layers to build up the tapered shaft which neatly matches the original. The picture will help clarify this procedure. Once you try this method you'll find all sorts of instances where it will do the trick nicely.

-Gil Russell

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